On 5 August 2019, the EPA announced the Types and Emission Limits for the First Batch of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Stationary Sources, which stipulates 73 types of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and the emission limits for five types of HAPs. The regulations were formulated to reduce HAP emissions and safeguard public health.
The regulations were formulated based on the amendments to the Air Pollution Control Act announced on 1 August 2018. The EPA selected 73 types of HAPs as the prioritized targets and divided them into three categories: volatile organic HAPs (61 substances), heavy metals or their compounds (eight substances), and others (four substances). The initial selection for the 73 HAPs was conducted by going through the lists of HAPs created by the EU, the US, Germany, Japan and Korea. The regulations were then finalized after taking into consideration the health risk assessments published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In the future, the EPA will continue expanding the controlled types of HAPs in batches, which will become valid on the day of announcement.
The emission limits for HAPs serve as a determination standard for any violations to Article 53 of the Air Pollution Control Act. The limits are developed based on several factors: HAPs’ impacts on human health, current national HAP emissions from different industries, and air pollution control technology and environmental analysis capabilities. To evaluate HAPs’ impacts on human health, the EPA researched domestic and international information on potential health risks or death caused by exposure to various HAPs at different concentrations. The final decisions for emission limits were made based on a combination of all collected data and assessments of short term exposure at critical concentrations.
The regulations will be reviewed on a rolling basis and more emission limits will be formulated in stages. The first batch of the emission limits focuses on five substances, and their respective emission limits are as follows: dioxins 10 ng-TEQ/Nm3, vinyl chloride 20 ppm, cadmium and its compounds 10 mg/Nm3, lead and its compounds 10 mg/Nm3, and trichloroethylene 5,000 ppm.
Excerpt from Environmental Policy Monthly, 22 (8)
- Environmental Protection Administration, R.O.C.(Taiwan)