Control of mobile sources of air pollution (移動污染源管制)

A. Current status

A. Current status

Fast economic growth and rising income levels in Taiwan have been accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of motor vehicles on the road. As of June 2022, the number of registered motor vehicles in Taiwan totaled 22.70 million, among which 14.32 million were motorcycles and 8.38million automobiles. The figures continue to rise by 1%-2% annually. With limited land and highly dense population, emissions from motor vehicles (hereinafter called "mobile pollution sources") are the main source of air contaminants in urban areas in Taiwan, which have a severe impact on air quality and public health.

B. Control measures

To reach the goal of reducing the total amount of emissions from mobile sources, "traffic and transportation management measures" are reinforced to curb the use of private vehicles and control the sources of air pollution.

(1) New vehicle control measures

 a.Phase-in implementation of stricter vehicle emission standards

Gasoline engine vehicles: Taiwan began to implement Phase 1 emission standards for gasoline engine vehicles on 1 July 1987, which was an important step in the development of regulating vehicle emissions. Phase 6 emission standards went into effect on 1 September 2019.

Diesel engine vehicles: Phase 1 emission standards for diesel engine vehicle went into effect on 1 July 1987, and Phase 6 standards went into effect on 1 September 2019.

Motorcycles: Taiwan began to implement Phase 1 emission standards for motorcycle on 1 January 1988, and Phase 7 standards went into effect on 1 January 2021.

 b.New vehicle model inspection: A new vehicle model inspection and testing system is implemented to ensure all new models of private vehicles are in compliance with emission standards.

 c.Consulting with related government agencies to look into the possibility of SUV tax hike in order to curb the growth of SUV sales.

 d.Encouraging automakers to manufacture or introduce automobiles that comply with new emission standards.

(2) On-road vehicle emissions control measures

 a. Routine exhaust emissions inspection and testing program: Routine inspection and testing of exhaust emissions from gasoline and diesel engine automobiles is conducted in conjunction with annual vehicle safety inspection by local departments of motor vehicles. For motorcycles, inspection is conducted at inspection stations entrusted by the EPA.

 b. Motorcycles and diesel engine automobiles spot check: Spot checks and testing of exhaust emissions from motorcycles and diesel engine automobiles are conducted by local environmental protection agencies. In addition, dynamometer testing facilities for exhaust emissions from diesel engine automobiles have been installed at 33 inspection lanes in 22 cities and counties nation-wide.

 c. Remote sensing of emissions from gasoline engine automobiles: An on-road remote sensing and monitoring system is used to check the exhaust emissions from gasoline engine automobiles. The system screens out individual vehicles with excessive emissions for follow-up inspection and testing.

 d. Urging the public to identify and report on-road gross polluters or other high-emission vehicles: The public are encouraged to identify and report high-emitting automobiles and motorcycles.

 e. Eliminating old vehicles and two-stroke engine motorcycles: In coordination with the Ministry of Transportation and Communications and the Department of Finance, the EPA proposed to raise license tax and motor vehicle fuel tax on old vehicles that are more than 10 years old in order to accelerate the elimination of old automobiles with high fuel consumption and heavy pollution.

 f. Enhancing the quality of exhaust emissions inspection and testing of in-use gasoline and diesel engine automobiles.

 g. Multiple Subsidizations Program of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles: EPA takes international experience as reference to propose the subsidizations, like replacing Heavy-Duty old diesel vehicles, repairing fuel injection systems, and installing air pollution control equipment on Heavy-Duty diesel vehicles. Among these measures in 2021, a vehicle can receive up to 650 thousand NTD for replacing the old one, up to 150 thousand NTD  for installing air pollution control equipment and up to 100 thousand NTD for repairing fuel injection systems.

(3) Clean alternative fuel promotion measures

a. Subsidizing the price of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG): On 1 October 2001, the EPA approved a subsidy policy which offered drivers a subsidy of NT$3 per liter of LPG, to encourage the public to use LPG as an alternative fuel. The subsidy was changed to NT$2.5 per liter after 1 January 2006.During the period from 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2008, the subsidy will be NT$2 per liter.

 b. Setting control measures of automobile gasoline and diesel fuels: The EPA has been setting more stringent standards for the sulfur content of automobile diesel fuel. The allowable sulfur content of diesel fuel was gradually reduced from 5,000 ppmw in 1989 to 10 ppmw in 2011. A 10 ppmw cap was put on gasoline fuel, effective 1 January 2012.

 c. Enforcing air pollution control fee program: A revision went into effect for collecting air pollution control fee on 1 September, 2017. The fee rate were set at NT$0.3 and NT$0.4 per liter for gasoline and diesel fuel respectively.

 d. Punishing unqualified fuel: " Penalty Guidelines for Mobile Sources Violating The Air Pollution Control Act" were revised on 19 August, 2019. Heavy-duty vehicle users are subject to a maximum fine up to NT$60,000 for using unqualified fuel.

 e. Adding more LPG vehicles and LPG filling stations: The EPA has been advocating the use of LPG retrofit vehicles and adding more LPG filling stations. LPG vehicles have been included in the government's joint supply contracts for green products to encourage retrofitting of government vehicles.

 f. Promoting the use of bio-diesel fuel and ethanol gasoline.

(4) Low-pollution vehicles promotion measures

 a. Advocating the use of low-pollution motorcycles

 b.Promoting the use of electric vehicle:
The Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Economic Affairs adopted a number of promotion measures, including fuel tax exemption, excise tax concessions and encouraging government agencies to purchase or lease electric vehicles for official purposes.

(5) Traffic management measures

 a. Promoting the use of public transportation

 b. Expanding paid motorcycle parking areas

 c. Planing and installing air quality maintenance zones that prohibit the entry of high-emission vehicles

Environmental Protection Administration, R.O.C.(Taiwan)
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