A. Current status
Some air pollution issues extend beyond national boundaries and are global in nature, such as ozone layer depletion, acid rain, and climate change, and their effective solutions will require the full engagement of the international community. A number of international conventions have been signed and ratified by countries around the world to tackle global atmospheric problems, including the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Convention, and the Kyoto Protocol. Although Taiwan is not a signatory party to the aforementioned conventions, we have joined the global efforts to control and cut down the production and consumption of ozone-depleting chemical products. We have also adopted many control measures for SOx, NOx, and greenhouse gas emissions.
B. Control measures
(1) Ozone layer protection
a. A cross-ministerial work group combining representatives of the public and private sectors as well as academia was established in 1989, dedicated to ozone layer protection.
b. Since 1993, the EPA has invited relevant agencies every year to inspect and verify the previous year's figures of the production, export and import of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) regulated by the Montreal Protocol, and has voluntarily submitted the figures to the Ozone Secretariat, UNEP.
c. Adhering to the Montreal Protocol, Taiwan government has phased out most of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) since 2006. Until now, there are no production of ODSs but 10% of HCFCs consumption, which will be reduced to zero in 2030. And methyl bromide is allowed only for Quarantine and Pre-shipment (QPS) use. The importing permission for ODS is controlled through rigorous reviewing by the Taiwan EPA.
d. The Directorate General of Customs, Ministry of Finance was entrusted with organizing a special program to destroy trafficked chemical products regulated by the Montreal Protocol. It has also coordinated with local customs offices, the Coast Guard Administration, the National Policy Agency, and other related agencies to conduct joint raids and crackdowns on trafficking.
(2) Acid rain
Besides the current control measures for SOx and NOx emissions in Taiwan, we are devoted to achieving the following objectives:
a. To participate in research projects on long-range transport of air pollutants and acid rain in East Asia and across the Taiwan Strait in order to seek joint solutions for acid rain problems caused by transboundary air pollutants.
b. To advocate the use of low sulfur fuel oil and work towards the use of fuel oil with a maximum sulfur content of 0.015%
c. According to the Air Pollution Control Act and based on the Polluters Pay Principle, the EPA began to levy SOx and NOx pollution control fees per quarter based on the type and amount of pollutants discharged from pollution sources.
d. To implement an air pollutants total amount control program
e. To maintain an acid deposition network for conducting a long-term monitoring and trend analysis to verify the effects of air control policy
f. To actively engage in international research projects on long-range transport of air pollutants
(3) Climate change
In response to the Kyoto Protocol, Taiwan has declared its responsibility to protect the earth, slow down climate change, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
a. After several major meetings at the national level, Taiwan has yet to reach a consensus on the national target of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the EPA will continue its efforts to advocate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in three dimensions—legal framework, technological research and development, and public campaigns.
b. To promote the draft Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act and continue the trial programs of greenhouse gas emission inspection, registration and verification; to promote the National CO2 Reduction Campaign.
- Environmental Protection Administration, R.O.C.(Taiwan)