A. Control measures
Continue to develop industry-specific emission standards and promote the following control measures:
(1) Some 8,500 public and private premises are required to apply for permits to install, modify or operate stationary pollution sources, and the premises have been announced in 8 batches. By the end of February,2010, 11,853 operating permits were issued . A total of 2,800 public and private premises are required to report annual emissions, and the premises have been announced in 2 batches. Currently, the reporting rate has reached 98%.
(2) Reinforcing control of dioxin and other hazardous air pollutants
An inventory of all dioxin sources has been made and industry-specific standards for dioxin emissions control have been put into effect. It was estimated that total annual dioxin emissions reduced from 321.1 gTEQ in 2002 to 59 gTEQ in 2008, which is 81% less than 2002. Assessment and monitoring of dioxin emissions is reinforced in compliance with emission standards, and penalties will be levied on factories that fail to comply.
In addition, control of mercury emissions has been reinforced and the EPA will continue to supervise factories to reduce the use of mercury and work towards a mercury-free environment.
(3) Advocating the gasoline vapor recovery program at gas stations nation-wide
Since 1997, the central government began to promote the gasoline vapor recovery program, a revision of Gas Station Gasoline Vapor Recovery Facility Management Regulations was promulgated on September 13, 2005, and required all gas stations shall be equipped with gasoline vapor recovery facilities. Currently among the nation's 2,656 gas stations, 100% have installed gasoline vapor recovery equipment. In 2006, three service centers for gasoline vapor recovery equipment operation and maintenance were established in northern, central and southern Taiwan. In 2006, the service centers helped 130 gas stations solve operating and maintenance problems. The centers continued to provide support for 203 gas stations from 2007 to 2009.
(4) Control, monitoring and improvement of volatile organic air pollutants
Starting from 1998, EPA first applied Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) technology on monitoring fugitive emissions of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from petrochemical and refining industries in Taiwan. Since then, EPA has completed 59 cases of air quality improvement in Dashe, Linyuan, Kaohsiung, Pingtung, and Mailiao industrial parks through “Fenceline OP-FTIR Monitoring Program”.Additionally, EPA has successfully mandated 24 petrochemical plants and refineries to upgrade or to improve the performance of their existing air pollution control devices, which resulted in more than 3350 tons of HRVOC and HAPs reduction through this program. EPA also employed this state-of-the-art technology to help investigation on 17 severe air pollution incidents and public nuisance complaints. In 2010, EPA continues to support this program by conducting fenceline HRVOC and HAPs measurement in Yunlin Offshore Industrial Park.
(5) Reinforcing control of fugitive particulate emissions
In 2009, an inventory of nationwide 72,159 construction sites were made according to the Construction Project Air Pollution Prevention Facility Management Regulations, and the compliance rate of the regulations was 58.9%. It estimated that total suspended particulate (TSP) emissions decreased 47.9% from 91,400 tonnes to 43,747 tonnes. The EPA will continuously supervise local environmental protection authorities to reinforce inspection and enforcement of penalties. To control fugitive particulate emissions, the EPA also published Management Regulations of Air Pollution Control Facilities for Fugitive Particulate Emissions of Stationary Source and the Air Pollution Control Fee on Particulate Emissions from Quarrying. Based on the regulations, the EPA will levy air pollution control fees on factories that emit fugitive particulate pollutants.
(6) Subsidizing local governments to carry out air quality improvement programs
Since July of 1998, the central government began to appropriate 60% of levies on stationary sources of air pollutants to local governments for the implementation of air quality improvement programs. The central government allocated a budget to subsidize cities and counties with insufficient funding and those located on the lee side of major sources of air pollution. The EPA creates general programs for control of stationary and mobile sources of air pollution, whereas cities and counties propose action plans with respect to their individual air pollution issues. In 2009, the EPA approved subsidies for 82 air quality improvement plans in 20 cities and counties, totaling NT$386.705 million.
B. Establishing a sound air pollution control fee system
(1) Fee rates revision and proclamation:
a. In recent years, ozone has become the main pollutant responsible for periods when the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) is greater than 100. Ozone was the main pollutant responsible for 57% of air quality days (PSI>100) in 2005. However, factories with stationary sources of massive NOx emissions were not required to pay higher fees due to a defective fee rates system. In addition, in a government budget discussion session held on 10 November 2005, the Legislative Yuan requested the EPA to revise the air pollution control fee rates system of stationary sources of SOx and NOx emissions. As a result, the revised rates are based on cumulative emissions, and VOCs are added in the fee system. The revised Stationary Source Air Pollution Control Fee Rates were promulgated on 31 December 2009 and went into effect on 1 January 2010.
b. With reference to personal income tax calculation, the revised SOx and NOx air pollution control fee rates are determined according to different control zones and are based on a three-tiered cumulative emission calculation. Factories with a certain low amount of emissions may enjoy the lowest rate.
c. The new VOC air pollution control fees will be implemented in two stages. The first stage begins on January 2007 with a fixed fee rate of NT$12 per kilogram, only for emissions greater than one tonne per quarter. The second stage begins on January 2010 with a fee rate variation, NT$ 15~30 per kilogram.
d. It is estimated Taiwan will cut 8,000 tonnes of SOx emissions, 9,000 tonnes of NOx, and 21,000 tonnes of VOCs.
(2) Subsidy measures:
To enforce the Polluters Pay Principle and encourage emission reduction, the EPA is drawing up measures to provide subsidies or deductions from air pollution control fees for factories that install and operate pollution prevention and control equipment. The EPA held public hearings on 1 and 15 December 2006 and 2 January 2007, respectively, to consult with related industries, associations, and local environmental protection agencies. The EPA is currently studying the feasibility of expanding the scope of subsidies and qualifications of applicants.
- Environmental Protection Administration, R.O.C.(Taiwan)